Beacon-based individualized hazard alarm system for construction sites: An experimental study on sensor deployment

Fansheng Kong, Seungjun Ahn, Joonoh Seo, Tae Wan Kim, Ying Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Researchers have proposed several forms of beacon sensor-based hazard alarm systems for increasing construction workers’ awareness of site hazards, but research on how to deploy beacon sensors so that the system is adequate for achieving timely individualized hazard alarms is scarce. Against this background, this research investigates the impact of different beacon sensor locations in a construction site on how quickly a worker can receive the individualized hazard alarms. This research took an experimental study approach to address this objective. After a prototype of a beacon-based hazard alarm system was developed, the system was tested in a concrete structure building under construction. In the experiment, the locations where the experimenter received the first hazard alarm were recorded in repetitive trials while the beacon sensor was located in four different locations, such as (1) at the entrance of the room, (2) behind the front side wall, (3) on the internal wall facing the access point, and (4) on the internal wall not facing the access point and in a partially enclosed room in the concrete structure. The rate of successful alarm notification (i.e., the rate that the person received the hazard alarm before arriving at the target location) was 89%, 68%, 48%, and 19%, respectively, for the four locations of the beacon sensor. Meanwhile, the heat maps indicating where the hazard alarm notification was received show that the “behind the front side wall” setting yielded the most desired pattern of notification reception, wherein the person received the hazard alarm just before arriving at the room. These results show that the hazard alarm function of the system could be severely affected by the beacon sensor’s location and implies that the locations of beacon sensors should be decided carefully based on the type of hazard involved and the workers targeted for receiving the alarms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11654
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • Construction safety
  • Construction site
  • Hazard alarm system
  • Hazard recognition
  • Sensor deployment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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