Ball milling as a mechanochemical technology for fabrication of novel biochar nanomaterials

Manish Kumar, Xinni Xiong, Zhonghao Wan, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Juhi Gupta, Bin Gao, Xinde Cao, Jingchun Tang, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

325 Citations (Scopus)


Mechanochemical synthesis of nano-biochar by ball-milling technology is gaining attention for the sake of its low-cost and eco-friendly nature. Ball milling as a non-/less-solvent technology can propel environmental sustainability and waste valorization into engineered biochar for advanced applications. Scalable production of biochar nanomaterials with superior properties (e.g., 400–500 m2 g−1 surface area and 0.5–1000 nm pore sizes) enables diverse applications in the field of energy and environment. This review critically evaluates the synthesis, characterization, and application of ball-milled biochar nanomaterials based on the latest findings. Limitations such as feedstock selection, process optimization, product homogeneity and reusability, environmental risks, and sustainability assessment remain challenging for further studies. This work highlights the recent advances on mechanochemical biochar technology and offer insights into opportunities and future prospects related to sustainable and facile synthesis of biochar-based novel materials for achieving sustainable development goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123613
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • Carbon nanomaterials
  • Engineered biochar
  • Environmental remediation
  • Green chemistry
  • Sustainable waste management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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