ASVspoof 2021: Towards Spoofed and Deepfake Speech Detection in the Wild

Xuechen Liu, Xin Wang, Md Sahidullah, Jose Patino, Hector Delgado, Tomi Kinnunen, Massimiliano Todisco, Junichi Yamagishi, Nicholas Evans, Andreas Nautsch, Kong Aik Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Benchmarking initiatives support the meaningful comparison of competing solutions to prominent problems in speech and language processing. Successive benchmarking evaluations typically reflect a progressive evolution from ideal lab conditions towards to those encountered in the wild. ASVspoof, the spoofing and deepfake detection initiative and challenge series, has followed the same trend. This article provides a summary of the ASVspoof 2021 challenge and the results of 54 participating teams that submitted to the evaluation phase. For the logical access (LA) task, results indicate that countermeasures are robust to newly introduced encoding and transmission effects. Results for the physical access (PA) task indicate the potential to detect replay attacks in real, as opposed to simulated physical spaces, but a lack of robustness to variations between simulated and real acoustic environments. The Deepfake (DF) task, new to the 2021 edition, targets solutions to the detection of manipulated, compressed speech data posted online. While detection solutions offer some resilience to compression effects, they lack generalization across different source datasets. In addition to a summary of the top-performing systems for each task, new analyses of influential data factors and results for hidden data subsets, the article includes a review of post-challenge results, an outline of the principal challenge limitations and a road-map for the future of ASVspoof.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10155166
Pages (from-to)2507-2522
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio Speech and Language Processing
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • ASVspoof
  • countermeasures
  • deepfakes
  • presentation attack detection
  • spoofing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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