Associations among Bullying Victimization, Family Dysfunction, Negative Affect, and Bullying Perpetration in Macanese Adolescents

Wing Hong Chui, Xue Weng, Paul Vinod Khiatani

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Bullying has become one of the most significant problem behaviors that school-aged adolescents face. The current study examines the strain–delinquency relationship by employing General Strain Theory as a guiding framework. “Strain” was operationalized as bullying victimization and family dysfunction, “delinquency” was operationalized as bullying perpetration, and “negative affect” was operationalized as anxiety and depression. Analyses were carried out based on a group of 2,139 Macanese schoolchildren. Using a structural equation modeling technique, the results revealed that exposure to family dysfunction and bullying victimization was associated with adolescents’ negative affect, such as anxiety and depression. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effect of victimization on bullying through negative affect was negative, though the mediation effect was relatively small and only significant in boys. In addition, gender analyses of invariance showed that male adolescents who experienced more family conflict and parental control were less likely to engage in bullying. This study could lead to further anti-bullying interventions and practical efforts designed to improve positive parenting and adolescents’ interpersonal skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-49
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • adolescence
  • bullying
  • family conflict
  • gender
  • negative affect
  • parental control
  • victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology

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