Assessment of the LVD offsets for the normal-orthometric heights and different permanent tide systems - A case study of New Zealand

Robert Tenzer, Viliam Vatrt, Ahmed Abdalla, Nadim Dayoub

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The geopotential-value approach is utilized in this study to estimate the average offsets of local vertical datums (LVDs) in New Zealand realized in the system of normal-orthometric heights. The LVD offsets are taken relative to the World Height System (WHS). We adopt the geoidal geopotential value W0=62,636,856 m2s-2 for a definition of WHS. The conversion of heights between different permanent tide systems is taken into consideration. The geopotential-value approach utilizes Molodensky's theory of the normal heights. The normal-orthometric heights at global positioning system (GPS)-leveling points are thus first converted to the normal heights. The normal to normal-orthometric height correction is computed and applied along the leveling lines using the leveling data, and the gravity disturbances are computed approximately from the EGM08 global geopotential model. The numerical study is conducted for 18 LVDs in the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The LVD offsets are estimated from EGM08 to GPS-leveling data. The estimated average LVD offsets vary between 1 cm (Wellington 1953 LVD) and 37 cm (One Tree Point 1964 LVD).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Geomatics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Geoidal geopotential value
  • GPS-leveling data
  • Local vertical datum
  • Offset
  • World Height System

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

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