Assessment of Feasibility, Challenges, and Critical Success Factors of MiC Projects in Hong Kong

Shipeng Zhang, Xie Rong, Beenish Bakhtawar, Salman Tariq, Tarek Zayed

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Modular integrated construction (MiC) is a groundbreaking innovative technology, transforming the traditional construction into a value-driven assembly of free-standing volumetric modules that are manufactured in a factory and installed on site. Because MiC has been gaining the attention of local construction stakeholders, it is imperative to assess the feasibility, challenges, and critical success factors (CSFs) for implementing MiC in Hong Kong. Existing literature has disclosed the CSFs from the worldwide perspective, but investigation on the applicability of these generic CSFs in Hong Kong is missing from the existing literature. Therefore, this study has first thoroughly explored the feasibility, challenges, and CSFs through literature synthesis and then shortlisted the CSFs relevant to Hong Kong through structured discussions from MiC researchers in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey on the relevant factors is then conducted to (1) determine the relative importance of CSFs through pairwise comparisons using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) by dividing the CSFs into five categories: industry factors, government factors, stakeholder factors, performance-driven factors, and project-specific factors; (2) determine the performance level of each CSF; and (3) quantify the feasibility index of MiC. The CSFs are further validated through expert interviews. The most significant CSFs found using AHP are client's understanding and willingness, suitable site characteristics and layout, and establishment of government legislation. Experts have also revealed the most significant challenges facing the MiC industry in Hong Kong and provided worthwhile recommendations on improving the contemporary situation. The topmost challenges are limitations of transportation, onsite transportation of MiC modules, and shortage of knowledge and experience. This study has also proposed a useful feasibility index that employs the performance levels and aggregate global weights of CSFs to evaluate the feasibility of MiC projects. Three case studies are carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the MiC feasibility index. Performance levels of CSFs are calculated for each case study. It is found that the CSFs grouped under the categories of industry factors and government factors need improvement to enhance the feasibility of MiC projects in Hong Kong. In essence, this study provides checklists and valuable guidance to ameliorate the successful implementation of MiC in Hong Kong. The feasibility index is an easy and handy tool for future projects' implementation and empirical studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04020047
JournalJournal of Architectural Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • Challenges
  • Critical success factors
  • Feasibility index
  • Hong Kong
  • Modular integrated construction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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