Assessment of energy poverty and key influencing factors in N11 countries

Fangping Rao, Yuk Ming Tang, Ka Yin Chau, Wasim Iqbal, Majed Abbas

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study is to measure the energy poverty containing a multi-dimensional and comprehensive set of indicators by combining them via the GRA-SRA method. It involved a case study comprising N11 countries using data from 2001 to 2017. A multidimensional energy poverty index was constructed by combining 13 indicators across 3 dimensions (energy availability, energy cleanability and energy affordability) of the N11 countries. The results prove that the overall energy poverty is being alleviated. It was found that Bangladesh (0.65) and Pakistan (0.47) are the most vulnerable economies in terms of energy poverty while the Philippines (0.36), Indonesia (0.33), and Vietnam (0.28) are less prone to energy poverty. A relative variation in energy poverty was found between N11 countries where South Korea experienced a continuous improvement in energy poverty while Iran showed a decreasing trend with a fluctuating pattern. Furthermore, this study provides an international comparison analysis on energy poverty. The results clarify that the energy types used for heating, are essential in the context of energy poverty and inequality. This study highlights the significance and usefulness of cross-border comparisons of regions with similar climatic or other circumstantial factors. Higher energy availability causes a decrease in energy poverty. In return, lower level of energy poverty leads lower income inequality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalSustainable Production and Consumption
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Carbon mitigation
  • Energy poverty indicators
  • GRA_SRA method
  • N11 countries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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