Assessing the Effects of Leadership Styles on Employees’ Outcomes in International Luxury Hotels

Teresa Aguiar Quintana, Sangwon Park, Yasmina Araujo Cabrera

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the effects of transformational, transactional, and non-transactional leadership on hotel employees’ outcomes including extra effort, perceived efficiency, and satisfaction with managers. Employees from eleven 4-star hotels in Spain provided the collected data. A series of statistical analyses (1) identify the elements of three leadership styles using a multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ-5X); (2) examine the effect of leadership styles on employees’ outcomes. The results of this study indicate that “idealized attributes” of transformational leadership and “contingent reward” from transactional leadership are the most important factors that positively affect all three outcomes (i.e., extra effort, perceived efficiency, and satisfaction); and (3) to assess the moderating effect of different types of ownership of hotel properties on the relationship between styles of leadership and outcomes of employees’ activities other than these two elements, the significant factors indicating positive or negative relationships vary depending on the types of individual outcomes as well as ownership of hotel properties. The discussion sections indicate theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-489
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Employee extra effort
  • Employee satisfaction with the leader
  • Leader effectiveness
  • Ownership of hotel properties
  • Transactional leadership
  • Transformational leadership

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • General Business,Management and Accounting
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Law


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