Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: A pilot study

Rong Song, Kai Yu Tong, Xiaoling Hu, Le Li, Rui Sun

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). There was significant lower RMSJ in the affected side at higher velocities (P < 0.05). There was significant negative correlation between average RMSE with different tracking velocities and Fugl-Meyer shoulder-elbow score (P < 0.05). There was also significant negative correlation between average RMSE and average ROM (P < 0.05), and moderate nonsignificant negative correlation with RMSJ, and CI. The characterization of velocity-dependent deficiencies, monitoring of training-induced improvement, and the correlation between quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-382
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Brain Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2013


  • Arm tracking
  • Robot-aided rehabilitation
  • Sensorimotor control
  • Stroke
  • Velocity-dependent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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