This paper reviews the efficiency and cost implications of Area Travel Plans (ATP's) relative to site-specific Travel Plans (TP's) from the perspective of the network users and travel planners. It is seen that the implementation of ATP's may decrease the potential for development planning related traffic 'rebound'. Rebound itself is characterized by an increase in demand incurred by indirect prim benefits - an obvious example being increased fuel efficiency in cars. The present example identifies how such effects can potentially manifest in the development planning process. In particular it is shown that a TP results in a reduced generalised cost of travel and so offers positive externalities to all members of the surrounding community - not just those whom the policies are intended to directly affect - and consequently loaves individuals facing a new cost structure for alternative modes of transport. As a result, rebound may occur through mode switching behaviour (ie from bus to car) and/or an increased number of trips. Investigation of the effects of implementing two alternative, though potentially complementary TDM interventions namely (i) 'soft factor' policies which are intended to instigate behavioural change and (ii) 'hard factor' policies which impose constraints on car use, are conducted using a graphical supply and demand analysis. This diagrammatic exposition coupled with some consideration of the socio-psychological benefits provides a compelling argument for further application of ATP's by the planning community.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Traffic Engineering and Control|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Geography, Planning and Development