ARAIM Stochastic Model Refinements for GNSS Positioning Applications in Support of Critical Vehicle Applications

Ling Yang, Nan Sun, Chris Rizos, Yiping Jiang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Integrity monitoring (IM) is essential if GNSS positioning technologies are to be fully trusted by future intelligent transport systems. A tighter and conservative stochastic model can shrink protection levels in the position domain and therefore enhance the user-level integrity. In this study, the stochastic models for vehicle-based GNSS positioning are refined in three respects: (1) Gaussian bounds of precise orbit and clock error products from the International GNSS Service are used; (2) a variable standard deviation to characterize the residual tropospheric delay after model correction is adopted; and (3) an elevation-dependent model describing the receiver-related errors is adaptively refined using least-squares variance component estimation. The refined stochastic models are used for positioning and IM under the Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM) framework, which is considered the basis for multi-constellation GNSS navigation to support air navigation in the future. These refinements are assessed via global simulations and real data experiments. Different schemes are designed and tested to evaluate the corresponding enhancements on ARAIM availability for both aviation and ground vehicle-based positioning applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9797
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Gaussian overbounding
  • global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
  • integrity monitoring (IM)
  • protection level (PL)
  • stochastic model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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