We extend extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers to complex Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS) where the input/output variables as well as the optimization variables are complex-valued. A new family of classifiers, called complex-valued ELM (CELM) suitable for complex-valued multiple-input-multiple-output processing is introduced. In the proposed method, the associated Lagrangian is computed using induced RKHS kernels, adopting a Wirtinger calculus approach formulated as a constrained optimization problem similarly to the conventional ELM classifier formulation. When training the CELM, the Karush-Khun-Tuker (KKT) theorem is used to solve the dual optimization problem that consists of satisfying simultaneously smallest training error as well as smallest norm of output weights criteria. The proposed formulation also addresses aspects of quaternary classification within a Clifford algebra context. For 2D complex-valued inputs, user-defined complex-coupled hyper-planes divide the classifier input space into four partitions. For 3D complex-valued inputs, the formulation generates three pairs of complex-coupled hyper-planes through orthogonal projections. The six hyper-planes then divide the 3D space into eight partitions. It is shown that the CELM problem formulation is equivalent to solving six real-valued ELM tasks, which are induced by projecting the chosen complex kernel across the different user-defined coordinate planes. A classification example of powdered samples on the basis of their terahertz spectral signatures is used to demonstrate the advantages of the CELM classifiers compared to their SVM counterparts. The proposed classifiers retain the advantages of their ELM counterparts, in that they can perform multiclass classification with lower computational complexity than SVM classifiers. Furthermore, because of their ability to perform classification tasks fast, the proposed formulations are of interest to real-time applications.
- Complex extreme learning machine
- Multiclass classification
- Quaternary classification
- Reproducing kernel Hilbert space
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Signal Processing
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering