Any-degrees-of-freedom (anyDOF) registration for the characterization of freeform surfaces

M. Y. Liu, C. F. Cheung, X. Feng, C. J. Wang, Z. C. Cao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an any-degrees-of-freedom (anyDOF) registration method for the characterization of freeform surfaces. The method attempts to fill the research gap regarding traditional surface registration methods which are normally dedicated to solving the global optimization problem with all DOF but they lack flexibility. The proposed anyDOF method is capable of registering surfaces with any specified combination of DOF. This is particularly useful when some of the DOF are known to be unchanged according to the a priori knowledge. The anyDOF surface registration method is regarded as a typical optimization problem of finding the minimum distance from target surface to the reference surface, with constraints of the unwanted DOF. The problem is solved by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Simulated experiments for a two-dimensional (2D) profile and a three-dimensional (3D) surface were undertaken, together with three measurement experiments including a fluid-jet polished surface, a bonnet polished surface and a diamond machined freeform surface. Experimental results show that the anyDOF registration method is highly flexible in the characterization of freeform surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-180
Number of pages11
JournalPrecision Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • Any-degrees-of-freedom (anyDOF)
  • Characterization
  • Freeform surfaces
  • Precision surface measurement
  • Registration
  • Ultra-precision machining

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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