Antioxidant Grain Passivation for Air-Stable Tin-Based Perovskite Solar Cells

Qidong Tai, Xuyun Guo, Guanqi Tang, Peng You, Tsz Wai Ng, Dong Shen, Jiupeng Cao, Chun Ki Liu, Naixiang Wang, Ye Zhu, Chun Sing Lee, Feng Yan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

344 Citations (Scopus)


Tin-based perovskites with excellent optoelectronic properties and suitable band gaps are promising candidates for the preparation of efficient lead-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, it is challenging to prepare highly stable and efficient tin-based PSCs because Sn 2+ in perovskites can be easily oxidized to Sn 4+ upon air exposure. Here we report the fabrication of air-stable FASnI 3 solar cells by introducing hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid or its salt as an antioxidant additive into the perovskite precursor solution along with excess SnCl 2 . The interaction between the sulfonate group and the Sn 2+ ion enables the in situ encapsulation of the perovskite grains with a SnCl 2 –additive complex layer, which results in greatly enhanced oxidation stability of the perovskite film. The corresponding PSCs are able to maintain 80 % of the efficiency over 500 h upon air exposure without encapsulation, which is over ten times longer than the best result reported previously. Our results suggest a possible strategy for the future design of efficient and stable tin-based PSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)806-810
Number of pages5
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2019


  • antioxidants
  • perovskite phases
  • solar cells
  • tin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry


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