Analysis of regulation and policy of private toll roads in a build-operate-transfer scheme under demand uncertainty

Anthony Chen, Kitti Subprasom

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


The build-operate-transfer (BOT) approach is one of the privatization mechanisms for promoting transportation infrastructure developments by using private funds to construct new infrastructure facilities. In a BOT scheme, it often involves three parties: the government, whose objective is to maximize the benefit defined in terms of social welfare added to the society; the private investors, whose objective is to maximize the profit generated from the investment; and the road users, whose objective is to minimize the inequality of benefit distribution among the road users traveling from different origin-destination pairs. Each of these parties has different objectives that often conflict with each other. In this paper, we develop various optimal road pricing models under demand uncertainty for analyzing the tradeoffs among the three objectives. In addition, a project evaluation framework is developed for assessing the effects of government policy and regulation on the BOT project. Seven cases of the BOT road pricing problem are analyzed: (1) BOT without regulation, (2) BOT with price control regulation, (3) BOT with equity regulation, (4) BOT with construction cost subsidy, (5) BOT with concession period extension, (6) BOT with construction cost subsidy and concession period extension, and (7) BOT with multiple objectives. Numerical results using a real case study of the Ban Pong-Kanchananburi Motorway (BMK) in Thailand are provided to examine the above seven cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)537-558
Number of pages22
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Build-operate-transfer scheme
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Network design
  • Pricing schemes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


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