Analysis and design of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for above-threshold operation

X. F. Li, S. H. Tsang, Siu Fung Yu, W. J. Fan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are studied under high current injection. It is found that the influence of carrier spatial hole burning increases the radiation loss margin of ARROW at low injection current, while the thermal lensing effect significantly reduces radiation loss margin of ARROW at high injection current. Hence, the excitation of multiple-transverse modes in VCSELs is inevitable under high injection current even if the dimensions of the ARROW have been optimized to maximum radiation loss margin. Therefore, it is proposed to modify the refractive index profile of the ARROW to compensate against the influence of thermal lensing in VCSELs. It can be shown that the radiation loss margin of the modified ARROW can remain unchanged under the influence of thermal lensing if the dimensions and refractive index profile of the ARROW are properly designed. Hence, stable single-mode operation can be obtained in ARROW VCSELs at high injection current.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1935-1942
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Volume26
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide
  • Optical refraction
  • Optical variables control
  • Optical waveguides
  • Refractive index
  • Spatial hole burning
  • Thermal lensing
  • Thermal lensing effect
  • Transverse leaky mode
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
  • Waveguide lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this