This paper describes current surveying operations and aspects of the construction of highway tunnels in Hong Kong. It raises the quality control requirements; the various operations of control survey, deformation survey, detail mapping and tunnel GIS; setting-out and as-built surveys; and geometric modelling systems for the design and construction. These conceptual, functional and operational models define the roles and contributions of an engineering surveyor serving in the tunnel projects.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development