An Optimization Model for Electric Vehicle Battery Charging at a Battery Swapping Station

Hao Wu, Grantham Kwok Hung Pang, King Lun Tommy Choy, Hoi Yan Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

107 Citations (Scopus)


A new model for a viable battery swapping station is proposed to minimize its cost by determining the optimized charging schedule for swapped electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The aim is to minimize an objective function considering three factors: the number of batteries taken from stock to serve all the swapping orders from incoming EVs, potential charging damage with the use of high-rate chargers, and electricity cost for different time period of the day. A mathematical model is formulated for the charging process following the constant-current/constant-voltage charging strategy. An integrated algorithm is proposed to determine an optimal charging schedule, which is inspired by genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and particle swarm optimization. A series of simulation studies are executed to assess the feasibility of the proposed model and compare the performance between the proposed algorithm and the typical evolutionary algorithms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-895
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • battery charging
  • Battery swapping stations
  • electric vehicles
  • optimization algorithms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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