An integrated life cycle assessment of different façade systems for a typical residential building in Ghana

Mark Kyeredey Ansah, Xi Chen, Hongxing Yang, Lin Lu, Patrick T.I. Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


This study performs a comparative environmental and economic assessment of four different façade systems for low-cost residential buildings in Ghana. A framework is designed to incorporate BIM, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) to perform a holistic comparison of a Shotcrete Insulated Composite Façade (Shotcrete ICF), Galvanised Steel Insulated Composite façade (G. Steel ICF) and Stabilised Earth Block Façade (SEBF) against the conventional Concrete Block and Mortar Façade (CBMF). BIM models are developed to compute the environmental and economic impacts of each façade. The results are then subjected to a comparative analysis for different life cycle stages. The SEBF is proved to be the most sustainable facade as it reduces cumulative energy demand (CED) by 39.13 %, global warming potential (GWP) by 18.07 % and LCC by 47.87 % compared to CBMF. The Shotcrete IFC and G. Steel IFC are found to increase CED but decrease GWP. Other than the SEBF, the ranking of all façades under different indicators changes through the scenario analysis. The findings of this study provide useful guidelines for selecting facade systems and reducing the environmental and economic impacts of low-cost residential buildings in Ghana.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101974
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • Cumulative energy demands
  • Façade
  • Global warming potential
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Life cycle cost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Transportation

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