An Exoneuromusculoskeleton for Self-help Upper Limb Rehabilitation After Stroke

Ching Yi Nam, Wei Rong, Wai Ming Li, Ching Yee Cheung, Wing Kit Ngai, Tsz Ching Cheung, Man Kit Peter Pang, Li Li, Junyan Hu, Hon Wah Wai, Xiaoling Hu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a novel electromyography (EMG)-driven exoneuromusculoskeleton that integrates the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), soft pneumatic muscle, and exoskeleton techniques, for self-help upper limb training after stroke. The developed system can assist the elbow, wrist, and fingers to perform sequential arm reaching and withdrawing tasks under voluntary effort control through EMG, with a lightweight, compact, and low-power requirement design. The pressure/torque transmission properties of the designed musculoskeletons were quantified, and the assistive capability of the developed system was evaluated on patients with chronic stroke (n = 10). The designed musculoskeletons exerted sufficient mechanical torque to support joint extension for stroke survivors. Compared with the limb performance when no assistance was provided, the limb performance (measured as the range of motion in joint extension) significantly improved when mechanical torque and NMES were provided (p 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-35
Number of pages21
JournalSoft Robotics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2020


  • Stroke Rehabilitation
  • robot
  • pneumatic muscle
  • neuromuscular electrical stimulation


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