An Autonomous Real-Time Charging Strategy for Plug-In Electric Vehicles to Regulate Frequency of Distribution System with Fluctuating Wind Generation

Shiwei Xia, Siqi Bu, Xiao Luo, Ka Wing Chan, Xi Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could provide valuable ancillary service for power systems with intermittent renewables. This paper proposes a charging model of a large amount of PEVs to mitigate the high-level wind power fluctuations in a distribution network so as to regulate system frequency. With the prerequisite that all PEV daily driving patterns are completely satisfied, the PEV charging power is economically allocated to counterbalance the wind generation intermittency. Afterward, a center-free control scheme based on the consensus algorithm is designed for PEVs to share the fluctuating wind generation in a fully distributed manner. The scheme is robust and flexible to practical PEV charging behaviors including arrival and departure time, initial and desired SOC, as well as the frequently changed departure time. Comprehensive simulations on a distribution system with coal and diesel generators, several wind farms and 2000 PEVs demonstrate that the proposed PEV charging scheme could effectively regulate the system frequency in the real time while the PEV users' charging requirements could be flexibly satisfied.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-524
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018


  • Daily driving patterns
  • frequency regulation
  • fully distributed control
  • optimal charging model
  • plug-in electric vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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