With more than 80% of the world's cargoes being transported by sea, effective port management is critical to the well-being of the global economy. This study models the effects of port ownership and governance on capacity investment and pricing structure, and these changes' implications on port service level and social welfare. The study argues that capacity investment and pricing are significantly influenced by a port's ownership form, and the different levels of government involved. Inter-port competition leads to increased capacity investments by private investors and local authorities, which can be either higher or lower than social optimal level. Therefore, it is important for policymakers to consider the effects of institutional and competition factors in port reform initiatives.
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