An analysis of BioHashing and its variants

Adams Kong, King Hong Cheung, Dapeng Zhang, Mohamed Kamel, Jia You

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

176 Citations (Scopus)


As a result of the growing demand for accurate and reliable personal authentication, biometric recognition, a substitute for or complement to existing authentication technologies, has attracted considerable attention. It has recently been reported that, along with its variants, BioHashing, a new technique that combines biometric features and a tokenized (pseudo-) random number (TRN), has achieved perfect accuracy, having zero equal error rates (EER) for faces, fingerprints and palmprints. There are, however, anomalies in this approach. These are identified in this paper, in which we systematically analyze the details of the approach and conclude that the claim of having achieved a zero EER is based upon an impractical hidden assumption. We simulate the claimants' experiments and find that it is not possible to achieve their reported performance without the hidden assumption and that, indeed, the results are worse than when using the biometric alone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1359-1368
Number of pages10
JournalPattern Recognition
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2006


  • BioHashing
  • Biometrics
  • FaceHashing
  • PalmHashing
  • Password
  • Security
  • User identity
  • Verification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Artificial Intelligence


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