Amplicon density-weighted algorithms for analyzing dissimilarity and dynamic alterations of RAPD polymorphisms of Cordyceps sinensis

Yi sang Yao, Ling Gao, Yu ling Li, Shao li Ma, Zi mei Wu, Ning zhi Tan, Jianyong Wu, Lu qun Ni, Jia shi Zhu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs).METHODS: Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs).RESULTS: Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris.CONCLUSION: The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD polymorphism for Hs from those for Cs supports the hypothesis of integrated micro-ecosystem Cs with multiple fungi, but does not support the "single fungal species" hypothesis for Cs and the anamorph-teleomorph connection between Hs and Cs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)618-628
Number of pages11
JournalBeijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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