All-level public policy: Plane-line-point design concept for assisting visually impaired persons to access public toilets

Kin Wai Michael Siu, Maggie M Y Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Visually impaired persons (VIPs) face a number of difficulties in everyday life. Among different public environments, public toilets present the most barriers for VIPs. In recent years, more governments and professionals have invested resources and effort into improving the quality of public toilets, including enhancing barrier-free, universal and inclusive policy and design concepts. However, the focus of such work is generally on assisting people with impaired mobility. The needs of people with visual impairments have rarely been concerned. Taking Hong Kong as a case study, this paper first reviews the current general public policy on assisting people with disabilities. The paper then focuses on the current deficiencies in the assistance provided for VIPs in accessing public toilets. By advocating an all-level public policy, the paper reviews and discusses the design of public toilets from three levels: plane, line and point. The plane level refers to the overall system, networks, and links for VIPs to access the public toilet environment. The line level refers to the links between different places and facilities for VIPs to access individual public toilets. The point level refers to individual public toilets, compartments, and facilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-183
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of the Humanities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Nov 2011


  • Inclusion
  • Plane-Line-Point
  • Public Policy
  • Public Toilet
  • Visually Impaired Persons(VIPs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

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