All-Carbon Solution-Gated Transistor with Low Operating Voltages for Highly Selective and Stable Dopamine Sensing

Xin Xi, Wei Tang, Dongqing Wu, Chaochao Shen, Wei Ji, Jun Li, Yuezeng Su, Xiaojun Guo, Ruili Liu, Feng Yan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The diversity of carbon materials makes it possible to prepare all-carbon electronic devices requiring components with different properties and functions. In this work, we fabricate an all-carbon solution-gated transistor (AC-SGT) based dopamine (DA) sensor with Nafion coated nitrogen and oxygen co-doped carbon yarn (Nafion/NOCY) as the gate electrode and graphene as the channel. The carbon materials in AC-SGT render the usage of a variety of strategies to improve its electrochemical sensing capability including the modification of the gate electrode and the modulation of the operating voltage. With a low gate-source voltage of 0.02 V as well as a low drain-source voltage of 0.05 V, AC-SGT manifests the outstanding DA sensing performances in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, limit of detection (3 nM, S/N > 3), linear range (3 nM to 300 μM), long-term stability (over 30 days), and preconditioning time (60 s). Furthermore, a smartphone controlled portable sensing system integrated with AC-SGT is fabricated herein, which shows the excellent in vitro sensing capability of DA in urine, proving the potential of all-carbon transistors in smart wearable biosensors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1211-1219
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2023


  • all-carbon transistors
  • dopamine sensors
  • graphene channels
  • low operating voltages
  • solution-gated transistors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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