All-3D-printed multifunctional wearable energy systems with embodied zinc-ion storage capability and smart responsive effect

Jingtao Fan, Jiaxuan Bai, Hui Ma, Xiaocong Tian, Bingang Xu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Integrating miniaturized and wearable energy storage units with smart responsive functions into multifunctional wearable energy systems is becoming a new growth direction for wearable applications. However, developing a universal, effective, and on-demand strategy towards multifunctional wearable energy systems with a synergistic combination of embodied energy and smart responsive effect is still challenging. Herein, we report an all-3D-printing strategy to manufacture and study multifunctional wearable energy systems, in which exceptional zinc-ion storage capability and smart responsive effect are both embodied synergistically. Rationally tuned in-plane electrodes extruded from 3D printable inks ensure efficient charge transport, thereby leading to exceptional electrochemical behaviors including high device capacitance of 760.0 mF cm−2, moderate operating voltage of 1.8 V, high energy density of 342.0 μWh cm−2, and excellent cycling stability. By further incorporating in-plane zinc-ion storage devices with biocompatible responsive materials through a same approach, sophisticatedly designed all-3D-printed multifunctional wearable energy systems are built and worn as an on-demand "energy ring" for intelligent energy storing/releasing. Reliable energy supplying to wearable electronics is achieved, and a smart shape deformability along with the ON-OFF control to electronic circuit under thermal stimuli is accomplished simultaneously. This work opens up new inspirations towards new-generation smart multifunctional wearable/flexible energy systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-20
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Storage Materials
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • All 3D printing
  • Multifunctional energy system
  • Shape memory
  • Wearable device
  • Zinc-ion storage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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