Scope: This study aims to investigate and compare the potentially neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms for brown seaweed polysaccharides (PS) of Alginate (Alg) and its two components, including polymannuronic acid (PM) and polyguluronic acid (PG), against Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Methods and Results: Model mice of PD are pretreated with Alg or PM or PG, separately via oral gavage once per day for four weeks. Our results found PM improved motor functions of PD mice, but Alg or PG did not. PM or PG, but not Alg, can prevent dopaminergic neuronal loss by increasing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions in midbrain of PD mice. The neuroprotective effects of PM rely on its anti-inflammation effects and its ability to improve striatal neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA)) levels in PD mice. PM inhibits inflammation, but PG or Alg induces inflammation in systemic circulation of PD mice. The neuroprotection provided by PG might be related to its ability to increase striatal neurotransmitter of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels in PD mice. Conclusion: PM plays better than PG to provide neuroprotection, but Alg did not show any neuroprotection against PD. Alg and its two components acted differently in preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss in PD mice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science