Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion for the joint inversion of terrestrial water storage using GPS vertical displacements, GRACE and GLDAS in Southwest China

Yongxin Liu, Hok Sum Fok, Robert Tenzer, Qiang Chen, Xiuwan Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) techniques, such as GPS, can be used to accurately record vertical crustal movements induced by seasonal terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Conversely, the TWS data could be inverted from GPS-observed vertical displacement based on the well-known elastic loading theory through the Tikhonov regularization (TR) or the Helmert variance component estimation (HVCE). To complement a potential non-uniform spatial distribution of GPS sites and to improve the quality of inversion procedure, herein we proposed in this study a novel approach for the TWS inversion by jointly supplementing GPS vertical crustal displacements with minimum usage of external TWS-derived displacements serving as pseudo GPS sites, such as from satellite gravimetry (e.g., Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE) or from hydrological models (e.g., Global Land Data Assimilation System, GLDAS), to constrain the inversion. In addition, Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) was employed during the inversion, while comparing with TR and HVCE to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. Despite the deterioration of the model fitness, our results revealed that the introduction of GRACE or GLDAS data as constraints during the joint inversion effectively reduced the uncertainty and bias by 42% and 41% on average, respectively, with significant improvements in the spatial boundary of our study area. In general, the ABIC with GRACE or GLDAS data constraints displayed an optimal performance in terms of model fitness and inversion performance, compared to those of other GPS-inferred TWS methodologies reported in published studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number664
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • Akaike's Bayesian information criterion
  • GPS
  • Terrestrial water storage inversion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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