Double ferroelectric hysteresis (P-E) loops are observed in aged BiFe O3 multiferroic ceramic at room temperature and are explained according to an aging effect driven by charged defects with high activation energy. The aged BiFe O3 shows R3c defect symmetry and allows a nonzero charged defect-induced polarization (PD) below the ferroelectric Curie temperature. This PD is strong enough to recover the switched 180° ferroelectric domains upon the removal of E, but it is rather weak to effectively switch back the 71°/109° ferroelectric domains. As a result, the traits of the double P-E loops weaken with increasing the maximum E from 121 to 167 kVcm.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)