Age and sex factors integrated 3D statistical models of adults' heads

Jie Zhang, Hassan Iftikhar, Parth Shah, Yan Luximon

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


3D parametric head models and 3D anthropometric analyses are essential in designing head-related products. Existing 3D parametric head modeling only analyzes sex-based dimension and shape variances but ignores age-related effects. Thus, we developed detailed 3D statistical models of adults' heads based on 1496 3D head scans of Chinese individuals aged 18 to 84, including a global model and four subclass models. An age threshold identification method has been presented to cluster the 3D heads into four groups based on their anthropometric features. The total explained variance of the first five principal components (PCs) in all head models was more than 76%. The relationships between the PCs, the head areas, and the specific dimensions of head regions have also been identified in this study. These models can be reliably used for fit assessment, mass customization, and virtual fittings for head-related products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103321
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • 3D anthropometric analysis
  • 3D statistical models
  • Chinese adult head
  • Ergonomic design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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