Advances in Understanding and Regulation of Sulfur Conversion Processes in Metal-Sulfur Batteries

Fangyi Shi, Jingya Yu, Chunhong Chen, Shu Ping Lau, Wei Lv, Zhenglong Xu (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) have attracted intensive attention as a promising next-generation energy storage system, due to the high energy density and low cost of sulfur cathodes. Despite the substantial progress in improving LSB performance, their wide implementation still suffers great challenges, including the difficulties in achieving practically high energy density with long cycle life, and the concerns on the limited lithium resources. The former issue mainly arises from the insufficient mechanics understanding of the complex lithium-sulfur redox reactions, while, the latter triggers the exploration of a range of new metal-sulfur systems, such as sodium-sulfur, potassium-sulfur, magnesium-sulfur, calcium-sulfur, and aluminum-sulfur batteries. These lithium-free metal-sulfur batteries (MSBs) hold the potential to offer higher energy density or/and lower battery costs. The fundamental understanding and rational regulation of effective metal-sulfur conversion reactions are crucial for developing the advanced and emerging MSBs. Herein, this work aims to overview the state-of-the-art progress in circumventing these issues for MSBs, in terms of working mechanisms, key factors determining electrochemical behaviors and battery performance. Advanced in-situ characterization techniques used to disclose the sulfur conversion mechanisms are also elaborately discussed. Conclusions and perspectives for the future research direction in MSBs are proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberD2TA02217F
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2022


  • lithium-sulfur battery
  • metal-sulfur battery
  • sulfur conversion chemistry
  • in-situ characterizations

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