Advances and Challenges in Deep Learning-Based Change Detection for Remote Sensing Images: A Review through Various Learning Paradigms

Lukang Wang, Min Zhang, Xu Gao, Wenzhong Shi

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Change detection (CD) in remote sensing (RS) imagery is a pivotal method for detecting changes in the Earth’s surface, finding wide applications in urban planning, disaster management, and national security. Recently, deep learning (DL) has experienced explosive growth and, with its superior capabilities in feature learning and pattern recognition, it has introduced innovative approaches to CD. This review explores the latest techniques, applications, and challenges in DL-based CD, examining them through the lens of various learning paradigms, including fully supervised, semi-supervised, weakly supervised, and unsupervised. Initially, the review introduces the basic network architectures for CD methods using DL. Then, it provides a comprehensive analysis of CD methods under different learning paradigms, summarizing commonly used frameworks. Additionally, an overview of publicly available datasets for CD is offered. Finally, the review addresses the opportunities and challenges in the field, including: (a) incomplete supervised CD, encompassing semi-supervised and weakly supervised methods, which is still in its infancy and requires further in-depth investigation; (b) the potential of self-supervised learning, offering significant opportunities for Few-shot and One-shot Learning of CD; (c) the development of Foundation Models, with their multi-task adaptability, providing new perspectives and tools for CD; and (d) the expansion of data sources, presenting both opportunities and challenges for multimodal CD. These areas suggest promising directions for future research in CD. In conclusion, this review aims to assist researchers in gaining a comprehensive understanding of the CD field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number804
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • change detection
  • deep learning
  • Foundation Models
  • multimodal
  • remote sensing
  • self-supervised
  • semi-supervised
  • unsupervised
  • weakly supervised

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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