Acoustical Extinction of Flame on Moving Firebrand for the Fire Protection in Wildland–Urban Interface

Caiyi Xiong, Yanhui Liu, Cangsu Xu, Xinyan Huang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Firebrands are a widely observed phenomenon in wildland fires, which can transport for a long distance, cause spot ignition in the wildland–urban interface (WUI) and increase the rate of wildfire spread. The flame attached to a moving firebrand behaves as a potential pilot source for ignition, so extinguishing such a flame in the process of moving can effectively minimize its fire hazard. In this work, firebrands were represented by a dry wood ball with a diameter of 20 mm and a weight of 2.9 g, which carried a flame with the heat release rate of 250 W. The firebrand was held by a pendulum system to adjust the velocity. Results showed that there is a minimum sound pressure to extinguish the firebrand flame, which increases slightly with the sound frequency. As the firebrand velocity increases from 0 m/s to 4.2 m/s, the minimum sound pressure for extinction decreases significantly from 114 dB to 90 dB. The cumulative effect of firebrand motion and acoustic oscillation was found to facilitate flame extinction. A characteristic Damköhler number (~ 1), with the ratio of the fuel residence time to the flame chemical time, is used to quantify the extinction limit of the flaming firebrand. This work provides a potential technical solution to mitigate the hazard of firebrand flame and spotting ignition in WUI and helps understand the influence of acoustic waves on the flame stability on the solid fuel. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1365-1380
JournalFire Technology
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Ember
  • Extinction
  • Fire protection
  • Sound wave
  • Wildfire
  • WUI fire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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