Achieving exceptional work-hardening capability of additively-manufactured multiphase Fe-Mn alloys via multiple deformation mechanisms

Peifeng Liu, Qinyuan Huang, Quan Shan, Zengbao Jiao, Qingge Wang, Yang Ma, Runhua Zhou, Ian Baker, Hong Wu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Laser-powder-bed-fusion (LPBF) fabricated Fe-Mn biodegradable alloys provide an attractive prospect for orthopedic applications due to their good tensile strength and high degradation rate. Nevertheless, the ε-martensite and heterogeneous microstructures produced by the LPBF processing often lead to premature failure of alloys. Herein, we report a LPBFed multiphase Fe-18Mn alloy (γ-austenite, ε-martensite, and α-ferrite) fabricated from pre-alloyed powders. After annealing at 650 °C, the alloy with a uniform microstructure displays a high 1 GPa tensile strength, a good fracture elongation of 16 %, and an extremely high work-hardening rate of 8500 MPa. The work-hardening rate is higher than that reported in most Fe-Mn steels and Fe-based high entropy alloys. The grain size of a few hundred nanometers provided the excess Gibbs free energy, resulting in an increase in the stacking fault energy (SFE) to 23.9 mJ/m2. The multiple deformation mechanisms, i.e., SFs, the martensitic transformation (γ → ε → α') and nano-deformation twins (DTs), were sequentially activated. We elucidate such unique work-hardening capability, originating from the interaction between the DTs, SFs and transformed martensite. Besides a high-density of dislocations were accumulated between parallel planar defects, the cooperative deformation of the soft and hard phases provided continuous hardening. Our findings highlight the exceptional work-hardening capability of additively-manufactured Fe-Mn alloys achieved by a multiphase material exhibiting multiple deformation mechanisms. The work also provides a straightforward approach for the development of stable-implanted Fe-based bone substitutes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103871
JournalInternational Journal of Plasticity
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Biodegradable Fe-18Mn alloy
  • Laser powder bed fusion
  • Multiphase alloy
  • Multiple deformation mechanisms
  • Work-hardening rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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