Toluene is a typical anthropogenic pollutant that has profound impacts on air quality, climate change, and human health, but its sources and sinks over forests surrounding megacities remain unclear. The Nanling Mountains (NM) is a large subtropical forest and is adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, a well-known hotspot for toluene emissions in southern China. However, unexpectedly low toluene concentrations (0.16 ± 0.20 ppbv) were observed at a mountaintop site in NM during a typical photochemical period. A backward trajectory analysis categorized air masses received at the site into three groups, namely, air masses from the PRD, those from central China, and from clean areas. The results revealed more abundant toluene and its key oxidation products, for example, benzaldehyde in air masses mixed with urban plumes from the PRD. Furthermore, a more than three times faster degradation rate of toluene was found in this category of air masses, indicating more photochemical consumption in NM under PRD outflow disturbance. Compared to the categorized clean and central China plumes, the simulated OH peak level in the PRD plumes (15.8 ± 2.2 × 106 molecule cm−3) increased by approximately 30% and 55%, respectively, and was significantly higher than the reported values at other background sites worldwide. The degradation of toluene in the PRD plumes was most likely accelerated by increased atmospheric oxidative capacity, which was supported by isoprene ozonolysis reactions. Our results indicate that receptor forests around megacities are not only highly polluted by urban plumes, but also play key roles in environmental safety by accelerating the degradation rate of anthropogenic pollutants.
- Atmospheric oxidative capacity
- Degradation rate
- Nanling Mountains
- Pearl River Delta
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis