A Zika Endemic Model for the Contribution of Multiple Transmission Routes

Xiaoyan Yuan, Yijun Lou, Daihai He, Jinliang Wang, Daozhou Gao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Zika virus disease is a viral disease primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female mosquitoes. Recent evidence indicates that the virus can also be sexually transmitted in hosts and vertically transmitted in vectors. In this paper, we propose a Zika model with three transmission routes, that is, vector-borne transmission between humans and mosquitoes, sexual transmission within humans and vertical transmission within mosquitoes. The basic reproduction number R is computed and shown to be a sharp threshold quantity. Namely, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable as R≤ 1 , whereas there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable as R> 1. The relative contributions of each transmission route on the reproduction number, and the short- and long-term host infections are analyzed. Numerical simulations confirm that vectorial transmission contributes the most to the initial and subsequent transmission. The role of sexual transmission in the early phase of a Zika outbreak is greater than the long term, while vertical transmission is the opposite. Reducing mosquito bites is the most effective measure in lowering the risk of Zika virus infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
JournalBulletin of Mathematical Biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Basic reproduction number
  • Global stability
  • Relative contribution
  • Sexual transmission
  • Vertical transmission
  • Zika virus disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Immunology
  • General Mathematics
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Environmental Science
  • Pharmacology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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