A Triad of Cardioid Sensors in Orthogonal Orientation and Spatial Collocation-Its Spatial-Matched-Filter-Type Beam-Pattern

Kainam Thomas Wong, Chibuzo Joseph Nnonyelu, Yue Ivan Wu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a new configuration of acoustic sensors-the collocation of three cardioid sensors in perpendicular orientation, in order to increase the mainlobe-To-sidelobe height ratio (possibly to infty). This paper will analyze such a proposed triad's 'spatial matched filter' beam-pattern that is independent of the frequency/spectrum of the incident signals. Specifically, this paper will analytically derive the mainlobe's pointing error in azimuth-elevation, the mainlobe's two-dimensional beam 'width,' the necessary and sufficient conditions for a sidelobe to exist, the mainlobe-To-sidelobe height ratio, and the array gain. These above characteristics depend on the cardioids' 'cardiodicity parameter' and on the beam's nominal 'look direction.'
Original languageEnglish
Article number8106745
Pages (from-to)895-906
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2018


  • Acoustic arrays
  • acoustic beam focusing
  • acoustic beam steering
  • acoustic beams
  • acoustic position measurement
  • acoustic signal processing
  • array signal processing
  • beam steering
  • beams
  • dipole arrays
  • directional sensors
  • focusing
  • sonar arrays
  • spatial filters
  • underwater acoustic arrays
  • underwater acoustic transducers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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