A systematical review of 3D printable cementitious materials

Bing Lu, Yiwei Weng, Mingyang Li, Ye Qian, Kah Fai Leong, Ming Jen Tan, Shunzhi Qian

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

154 Citations (Scopus)


3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is a technology which adopts layer-by-layer additive deposition process to build three-dimensional objects. Over the past decade, 3D printing has been attracting more and more attention in the building and construction industry. Compared with conventional concrete casting techniques, 3D printing contributes to higher efficiency with freeform construction, greatly reduced labor and much less construction waste. However, 3D printable cementitious materials are different from conventional concrete in terms of rheology, printability, and mechanical performances. This paper aims to systematically bridge the gap between the requirement and research and development of 3D printable cementitious materials to date. Guided by 3D printing process and multi-level design of cementitious materials, the requirements for 3D printable cementitious material at different material development levels are discussed. This paper provides insights for the future development of 3D printable cementitious materials for building and construction by controlling the basic inputs of materials to obtain desired structural performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)477-490
Number of pages14
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2019


  • 3D printable cementitious material (3DPCM)
  • 3D printing
  • Buildability
  • Multi-level material design (MMD)
  • Pumpability
  • Rheology
  • Structural performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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