A Survey of State-of-The-Art on Blockchains

Huawei Huang, Wei Kong, Sicong Zhou, Zibin Zheng, Song Guo

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


To draw a roadmap of current research activities of the blockchain community, we first conduct a brief overview of state-of-The-Art blockchain surveys published in the past 5 years. We found that those surveys are basically studying the blockchain-based applications, such as blockchain-Assisted Internet of Things (IoT), business applications, security-enabled solutions, and many other applications in diverse fields. However, we think that a comprehensive survey toward the essentials of blockchains by exploiting the state-of-The-Art theoretical modelings, analytic models, and useful experiment tools is still missing. To fill this gap, we perform a thorough survey by identifying and classifying the most recent high-quality research outputs that are closely related to the theoretical findings and essential mechanisms of blockchain systems and networks. Several promising open issues are also summarized for future research directions. We hope this survey can serve as a useful guideline for researchers, engineers, and educators about the cutting-edge development of blockchains in the perspectives of theories, modelings, and tools.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
Pages (from-to)1-42
JournalACM Computing Surveys
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • analytic models
  • Blockchain
  • experiment tools
  • theoretical modelings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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