A super-voxel-based method for generating surrogate lung ventilation images from CT

Zhi Chen, Yu Hua Huang, Feng Ming Kong, Wai Yin Ho, Ge Ren, Jing Cai

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to develop and evaluate (Formula presented.), a super-voxel-based method for surrogate computed tomography ventilation imaging (CTVI). Methods and Materials: The study used four-dimensional CT (4DCT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images and corresponding lung masks from 21 patients with lung cancer obtained from the Ventilation And Medical Pulmonary Image Registration Evaluation dataset. The lung volume of the exhale CT for each patient was segmented into hundreds of super-voxels using the Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) method. These super-voxel segments were applied to the CT and SPECT images to calculate the mean density values (Dmean) and mean ventilation values (Ventmean), respectively. The final CT-derived ventilation images were generated by interpolation from the Dmean values to yield (Formula presented.). For the performance evaluation, the voxel- and region-wise differences between (Formula presented.) and SPECT were compared using Spearman’s correlation and the Dice similarity coefficient index. Additionally, images were generated using two deformable image registration (DIR)-based methods, (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), and compared with the SPECT images. Results: The correlation between the Dmean and Ventmean of the super-voxel was 0.59 ± 0.09, representing a moderate-to-high correlation at the super-voxel level. In the voxel-wise evaluation, the (Formula presented.) method achieved a stronger average correlation (0.62 ± 0.10) with SPECT, which was significantly better than the correlations achieved with the (Formula presented.) (0.33 ± 0.14, p < 0.05) and (Formula presented.) (0.23 ± 0.11, p < 0.05) methods. For the region-wise evaluation, the Dice similarity coefficient of the high functional region for (Formula presented.) (0.63 ± 0.07) was significantly higher than the corresponding values for the (Formula presented.) (0.43 ± 0.08, p < 0.05) and (Formula presented.) (0.42 ± 0.05, p < 0.05) methods. Conclusion: The strong correlation between (Formula presented.) and SPECT demonstrates the potential usefulness of this novel method of ventilation estimation for surrogate ventilation imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1085158
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • 4DCT
  • lung cancer
  • radiotherapy
  • super-voxel
  • ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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