A study on local cooling of garments with ventilation fans and openings placed at different torso sites

Mengmeng Zhao, Chuansi Gao, Faming Wang, Kalev Kuklane, Ingvar Holmér, Jun Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the study was to examine the various design features of ventilated garments on cooling performance. Five jackets with small ventilation units and closable openings were designed. The ventilation units with a flow rate of 12 l/s were placed at five different torso sites. They were examined on a sweating thermal manikin in four clothing opening conditions in a warm environment (Ta= Tmanikin= 34 °C, RH = 60%, Va= 0.4 m/s). Total torso cooling was increased by 137-251%, and clothing total dynamic evaporative resistance was decreased by 43-69%. Neither the ventilation location nor the opening design had a significant difference on total torso cooling. The ventilation location had a significant difference on localized intra-torso cooling, but not the opening design. When the ventilation units were placed at the local zone where it was ventilated, that zone underwent the highest cooling than other local zones. The study indicated that the ventilation units should be placed at the region where it required the most evaporative cooling, e.g. along the spine area and the lower back. The openings could be adjusted (closed or opened) to make comfortable air pressure for the wearers but without making significant difference on the whole torso cooling under this flow rate. Relevance to industry: Heat strain is frequently reported in hot environments, especially for those industries, such as construction, mining and steel. Clothing equipped with the small ventilation units could circulate the ambient air around the body and thus decrease heat strain and improve productivity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-237
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Evaporation
  • Local cooling
  • Opening
  • Ventilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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