A stacking ensemble deep learning model for building extraction from remote sensing images

Duanguang Cao, Hanfa Xing, Man Sing Wong, Mei Po Kwan, Huaqiao Xing, Yuan Meng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Automatically extracting buildings from remote sensing images with deep learning is of great significance to urban planning, disaster prevention, change detection, and other applications. Various deep learning models have been proposed to extract building information, showing both strengths and weaknesses in capturing the complex spectral and spatial characteristics of buildings in remote sensing images. To integrate the strengths of individual models and obtain fine-scale spatial and spectral building information, this study proposed a stacking ensemble deep learning model. First, an optimization method for the prediction results of the basic model is proposed based on fully connected conditional random fields (CRFs). On this basis, a stacking ensemble model (SENet) based on a sparse autoencoder integrating U-NET, SegNet, and FCN-8s models is proposed to combine the features of the optimized basic model prediction results. Utilizing several cities in Hebei Province, China as a case study, a building dataset containing attribute labels is established to assess the performance of the proposed model. The proposed SENet is compared with three individual models (U-NET, SegNet and FCN-8s), and the results show that the accuracy of SENet is 0.954, approximately 6.7%, 6.1%, and 9.8% higher than U-NET, SegNet, and FCN-8s models, respectively. The identification of building features, including colors, sizes, shapes, and shadows, is also evaluated, showing that the accuracy, recall, F1 score, and intersection over union (IoU) of the SENet model are higher than those of the three individual models. This suggests that the proposed ensemble model can effectively depict the different features of buildings and provides an alternative approach to building extraction with higher accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3898
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Building extraction
  • Deep learning
  • Remote sensing image
  • Stacking ensemble

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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