A simulation of bonding effects and their impacts on pedestrian dynamics

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


This paper simulates bonding effects inside pedestrian crowds. Based on the social force model, this paper derives an exponential formulation of the bonding force, as opposed to the repulsive force, and surveys the degree of interpersonal cohesion under various circumstances. Parameters associated with the model are calibrated by preliminary simulation runs. With the proper simulation environment configuration, the effect of the bonding force is extensively demonstrated. Results show that the bonding force results in pedestrians' walking speeds being different from their initial intended ones. Specifically, delays in walking and the overtaking phenomenon, which are empirically observed, are explained using this model. In the zigzag walkway defined in the experiment, up to approximately 4% fewer pedestrians are able to escape in the prescribed time, due to bonding effects. To sum up, the bonding forces cause negative effects on pedestrian evacuation and should be taken into consideration for crowd dynamics research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5339199
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Bonding force
  • Emergency evacuation
  • Microscopic simulation
  • Pedestrian dynamics
  • Social force model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'A simulation of bonding effects and their impacts on pedestrian dynamics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this