A scale for the management of aggressive and violent behaviour (C_MAVAS): Psychometric properties testing in mental health nurses

Teris Cheung, Jolene Mui, Yuen Shan Ho, Wai Tong Chien

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: This study set out to examine the psychometric properties of C_MAVAS, a newly Chinese-translated version of MAVAS, a 27-item scale assessing healthcare professionals’ attitudes to the management of patient violence. Method: The English version of the MAVAS was translated and back-translated to come up with C_MAVAS. A convenience sample of 262 qualified mental health nurses working in a local psychiatric hospital was recruited. Exploratory factor analysis tested C_MAVAS’s construct validity. Results: Content validity of the C_MAVAS was very satisfactory with validity indices of 97.4% for the overall scale and 90% to 100% for individual items. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution: ‘interactional perspectives on patient violence’, ‘best ways perceived for violence management’, ‘internal or biomedical perspectives on patient violence’, and ‘external perspectives on patient aggression and violence’, were important in shaping their attitudes towards managing violence and patient disruptiveness. Internal consistency of the Chinese version was barely satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.51–0.67) for the four factors/subscales and its test-retest reliability was good (Pearson’s coefficient = 0.84). Conclusion: The findings suggest the C_MAVAS is a valid and reliable tool to measure mental health nurses’ attitudes towards patient violence/aggression in a mental hospital setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1496
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2018


  • Aggression
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Mental health nurses
  • Psychiatric hospitals
  • Psychometric properties
  • Violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'A scale for the management of aggressive and violent behaviour (C_MAVAS): Psychometric properties testing in mental health nurses'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this