A review of surface roughness generation in ultra-precision machining

S. J. Zhang, Suet To, S. J. Wang, Z. W. Zhu

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

173 Citations (Scopus)


Ultra-precision machining (UPM) is capable of manufacturing a high quality surface at a nanometric surface roughness. For such high quality surface in a UPM process, due to the machining complexity any variable would be possible to deteriorate surface quality, consequently receiving much attention and interest. The general factors are summarized as machine tool, cutting conditions, tool geometry, environmental conditions, material property, chip formation, tool wear, vibration etc. This paper aims to review the current state of the art in studying the surface roughness formation and the factors influencing surface roughness in UPM. Firstly, the surface roughness characteristics in UPM is introduced. Then in UPM, a wide variety of factors for surface roughness are then reviewed in detail and the mechanism of surface roughness formation is concluded thoroughly. Finally, the challenges and opportunities faced by industry and academia are discussed and several principle conclusions are drawn.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-95
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Surface roughness
  • Surface roughness characteristics
  • Surface roughness formation
  • Ultra-precision machining

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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