Nano-sized TiO2photocatalytic water-splitting technology has great potential for low-cost, environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production to support the future hydrogen economy. Presently, the solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency is too low for the technology to be economically sound. The main barriers are the rapid recombination of photo-generated electron/hole pairs as well as backward reaction and the poor activation of TiO2by visible light. In response to these deficiencies, many investigators have been conducting research with an emphasis on effective remediation methods. Some investigators studied the effects of addition of sacrificial reagents and carbonate salts to prohibit rapid recombination of electron/hole pairs and backward reactions. Other research focused on the enhancement of photocatalysis by modification of TiO2by means of metal loading, metal ion doping, dye sensitization, composite semiconductor, anion doping and metal ion-implantation. This paper aims to review the up-to-date development of the above-mentioned technologies applied to TiO2photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on the studies reported in the literature, metal ion-implantation and dye sensitization are very effective methods to extend the activating spectrum to the visible range. Therefore, they play an important role in the development of efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production.
- Dye sensitization
- Hydrogen production
- Metal ion-implantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment