A Pioneering Study of Third-party Liability Insurance for Unmanned/Autonomous Commercial Ships

Ling Zhu, Wangwang Xing

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Assesses how unmanned or autonomous ships will affect third party liability insurance. Reviews the changes and risks associated with such vessels, the impact on the operator's role, whether product liability insurance is needed for software designs, and the cybersecurity risk. Details the issues that protection and indemnity insurance should consider, and the use of civil liability insurance for collision, cargo, pollution and salvage liability.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-458
JournalJournal of business law
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • Autonomous vessels
  • Cargo
  • Collision claims
  • Cybersecurity
  • Indemnities
  • Pollution
  • Salvage
  • Software
  • Third party insurance

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