A new similarity degree of digital watermarks

Li Li, Dapeng Zhang, Liuzhao Ruan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The popular formulas of evaluating the similarity of digital watermarks have serious drawbacks: when the similarity degree is 1, the watermarks are not unique. This paper firstly analyzes the drawbacks in the popular formulas, then proposes a new similarity degree formula, which weakens the shortcomings of the existing formulas and overcomes the lack of uniqueness in theory. From the experimental results, the new formula not only does well in evaluating the watermark's similarity degree, but also is in good accordance with visual perception.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-731
Number of pages5
JournalICIC Express Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2011


  • Digital watermarking
  • Normalized correlation
  • Similarity degree formula

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science(all)


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