The applicability of sludge biochar catalyst (SBC) coupling with ultrasound (US) irradiation for the simultaneous removal of Pb(II) and phenol was firstly investigated in this study. Results indicate that Pb(II) removal of SBC/US process was superior to that of SBC without US. The inhibitory order of the coexisting anions on Pb(II) removal was PO43− > HCO3− > NO3− > F− > SO42− > Cl−. Also, several coexisting metals ions inculding Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cu(II) could be removed in a simultaneous manner with Pb(II). A high removal performance of Pb(II) by SBC/US process and its synergism with phenol oxidation had been successfully achieved. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and phenol were high up to 95% within 60 min at optimum reaction conditions. Four kinds of Pb species inculding Pb0, PbCO3, PbO and Pb(OH)2 were formed during the reaction, whereas five kinds of transformation compounds of phenol such as 1,4-benzoquinone, acetic acid, formic acid, maleic acid and propionic acid were detected. Both HO[rad] and O2[rad]− contributed to the oxidation of phenol by SBC/US process, but HO[rad] was dominant radical. A reaction mechanism for the synergistic removal of Pb(II) and phenol by SBC/US process involving in four stages-namely adsorption, precipitation, reduction and Fenton-like oxidation processes was proposed. This study demonstrates that SBC/US process could be considered as a potential candidate for the remediation of real wastewaters containing Pb(II) and phenol.
- Sludge biochar
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis